Let's say the equation is given. How can i identify which one is a precipitate.
Well, you can't really - you need to look up solubility product data for the possible compounds. There are also solubility tables based on the anions. NItrates for example tend to remain soluble while many halides or sulfates do not - but there are exceptions to all of the rules.
you need to remember your solubility rules. look them up and memorize them. for the most part, any group 1 metallic compound is soluble. all nitrates are soluble. if the compound contains Pb, Hg, or Ag, or the larger group 2 metals, it is more likely than not insoluble. there are other rules for the polyatomic ions but they are similar. memorize them.