Also, to both of them, what types of cells or microorganisms carry out the process, what are the products, and how are they releated to food?
Both processes are used primarily for the regeration of NAD+ from NADH2, particularly in anaerobic conditions. The main difference, biochemically, are the products: lactic acid fermentation produces lactate (a 3 carbon molecule), while ethanol fermentation produces ethanol (a 2 carbon molecule) and carbon dioxide.
Ethanol fermentation occurs in fungi, and many bacteria (goldfish are also a weird example). Yeast are used by brewers to make beer. Lactic acid fermentation occurs among many fungi, bacteria, and higher animals (where the lactic acid can be regenerated into pyruvate), including humans. It is used in the food industry to produce yogurt, sourkraut, and cheese among other foods.
Lactic acid (IUPAC systematic name: 2-hydroxypropanoic acid), also known as milk acid, is a chemical compound that plays a role in several biochemical processes. It was first isolated in 1780 by a Swedish chemist, Carl Wilhelm Scheele, and is a carboxylic acid with a chemical formula of C3H6O3. It has a hydroxyl group adjacent to the carboxyl group, making it an alpha hydroxy acid (AHA). In solution, it can lose a proton from the acidic group, producing the lactate ion CH3CH(OH)COO?. It is miscible with water or ethanol, and is hygroscopic.
Lactic acid is chiral and has two optical isomers. One is known as L-(+)-lactic acid or (S)-lactic acid and the other, its mirror image, is D-(-)-lactic acid or (R)-lactic acid. L-(+)-Lactic acid is the biologically important isomer.
In animals, L-lactate is constantly produced from pyruvate via the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in a process of fermentation during normal metabolism and exercise. It does not increase in concentration until the rate of lactate production exceeds the rate of lactate removal which is governed by a number of factors including: monocarboxylate transporters, concentration and isoform of LDH and oxidative capacity of tissues. The concentration of blood lactate is usually 1-2 mmol/L at rest, but can rise to over 20 mmol/L during intense exertion.
Lactic acid fermentation is also performed by Lactobacillus bacteria. These bacteria can operate in the mouth; the acid they produce is responsible for the tooth decay known as caries.
In medicine, lactate is one of the main components of Ringer's lactate or lactated Ringer's solution (Compound Sodium Lactate or Hartmann's Solution in the UK). This intravenous fluid consists of sodium and potassium cations, with lactate and chloride anions, in solution with distilled water in concentration so as to be isotonic compared to human blood. It is most commonly used for fluid resuscitation after blood loss due to trauma, surgery or a burn injury.
Exercise and lactate
During power-intensive exercises such as sprinting, when the rate of demand for energy is high, lactate is produced faster than the ability of the tissues to remove it and lactate concentration begins to rise. This is a beneficial process since the regeneration of NAD+ ensures that energy production is maintained and exercise can continue. The increased lactate produced can be removed in a number of ways including: oxidation to pyruvate by well-oxygenated muscle cells which is then directly used to fuel the citric acid cycle and conversion to glucose via the Cori cycle in the liver through the process of gluconeogenesis.Contrary to popular belief, this increased concentration of lactate does not directly cause acidosis, nor is it responsible for delayed onset muscle soreness. This is because lactate itself is not capable of releasing a proton, and secondly, the acidic form of lactate, lactic acid, cannot be formed under normal circumstances in human tissues. Analysis of the glycolytic pathway in humans indicates that there are not enough hydrogen ions present in the glycolytic intermediates to produce lactic or any other acid.The acidosis that is associated with increases in lactate concentration during heavy exercise arises from a separate reaction. When ATP is hydrolysed, a hydrogen ion is released. ATP-derived hydrogen ions are primarily responsible for the decrease in pH. During intense exercise, aerobic metabolism cannot produce ATP quickly enough to supply the demands of the muscle. As a result, anaerobic metabolism becomes the dominant energy producing pathway as it can form ATP at high rates. Due to the large amounts of ATP being produced and hydrolysed in a short period of time, the buffering systems of the tissues are overcome, causing pH to fall and creating a state of acidosis. This may be one factor, among many, that contributes to the acute muscular discomfort experienced shortly after intense exercise.
The effect of lactate on acidosis has been the topic of many recent conferences in the field of exercise physiology. Robergs et al. have accurately chased the proton movement that occurs during glycolysis. However, in doing so, they have suggested that [H+] is an independent variable that determines its own concentration. A recent review by Lindinger et al. has been written to rebut the stoichiometric approach used by Robergs et al (2004). In using this stoichiometric process, Robergs et al. have ignored the causitive factors (independent variables) of [H+]. These factors are strong ion difference [SID], PCO2, and weak acid buffers. Lactate is a strong anion, and causes a reduction in [SID] which causes and increase in [H+] to maintain electroneutrality. PCO2 also causes an increase in [H+]. During exercise, intramuscular [lactate] and PCO2 increase, causing an increase in [H+], and thus a decrease in pH.
Lactic acid as a polymer precursor
Two molecules of lactic acid can be dehydrated to lactide, a cyclic lactone. A variety of catalysts can polymerise lactide to either heterotactic or syndiotactic polylactide, which as biodegradable polyesters with valuable (inter alia) medical properties are currently attracting much attention.
Lactic acid in food
Lactic acid is primarily found in sour milk products, such as: koumiss, leban, yogurt, kefir and some cottage cheeses. The casein in fermented milk is coagulated (curdled) by lactic acid.though it can be fermented from lactose (milk sugar), most commercially used lactic acid is derived by using bacteria such as Bacillus acidilacti, Lactobacillus delbueckii or Lactobacillus bulgaricus to ferment carbohydrates from nondairy sources such as cornstarch, potatoes and molasses. Thus, although it is commonly known as "milk acid", products claiming to be vegan do sometimes feature lactic acid as an ingredient.Lactic acid may also be found in various processed foods, usually either as a pH adjusting ingredient, or as a preservative (either as antioxidant or for control of pathogenic micro-organisms). It may also be used as a fermentation booster in rye and sourdough breads.
Ethanol fermentation is the biological process by which sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose, are converted into ethanol and carbon dioxide. Yeasts carry out ethanol fermentation on sugars in the absence of oxygen. Because the process does not require oxygen, ethanol fermentation is classified as anaerobic. Ethanol fermentation is responsible for the rising of bread dough, the production of ethanol in alcoholic beverages, and for much of the production of ethanol for use as fuel. The chemical process of fermentation
The chemical equation below summarizes ethanol fermentation, in which one hexose molecule is converted into two ethanol molecules and two carbon dioxide molecules:
C6H12O6 ? 2 C2H5OH + 2 CO2
The process begins with a molecule of glucose being broken down by the process of glycolysis into pyruvate:
C6H12O6 ? 2 CH3COCOO? + 2 H2O + 2H+
This reaction is accompanied by the reduction of two molecules of NAD+ to NADH and a net of two ADP molecules converted to ATP.
Pyruvate is then converted to acetaldehyde and carbon dioxide. The acetaldehyde is subsequently reduced to ethanol by the NADH from the previous glycolysis, which is returned to NAD+:
CH3COCOO? + H+ ? CH3CHO + CO2
CH3CHO + NADH ? C2H5OH + NAD+
Yeast will perform the above two reactions only if oxygen is excluded from the environment. Otherwise yeast will oxidize pyruvate completely to carbon dioxide and water.
Ethanol respiration is used to create bubbles in breadEthanol fermentation is responsible for the rising of bread dough. Yeast organisms consume sugars in the dough and produce ethanol and carbon dioxide as waste products. The carbon dioxide forms bubbles in the dough, expanding it into something of a foam. Nearly all the ethanol evaporates from the dough when the bread is baked.
The production of all alcoholic beverages employs ethanol fermentation by yeast. Wines and brandies are produced by fermentation of the natural sugars present in fruits, especially grapes. Beers, ales, and whiskeys employ fermentation of grain starches that have been converted to sugar by the application of the enzyme, amylase, which is present in grain kernels that have been germinated. Amylase-treated grain or amylase-treated potatos is fermented for the production of vodka. Fermentation of cane sugar is the first step in producing rum. In all cases, the fermentation must take place in a vessel that is arranged to allow carbon dioxide to escape, but that prevents outside air from coming in, as exposure to oxygen would prevent the formation of ethanol.
Similar yeast fermentation of various carbohydrate products is used produce much of the ethanol used for fuel.
 Feedstocks for fuel production
The dominant ethanol feedstock in warmer regions is sugarcane. In temperate regions, this accessibility has been somewhat replicated by selective breeding of the sugar beet.
In the United States, the main feedstock for the production of ethanol is currently corn. Approximately 2.8 gallons of ethanol (10 liters) are produced from one bushel of corn (35 liters). While much of the corn turns into ethanol, some of the corn also yields by-products such as DDGS (distillers dried grains with solubles) that can be used to fulfill a portion of the diet of livestock. A bushel of corn produces about 18 pounds of DDGS. . Although most of the fermentation plants have been built in corn-producing regions, sorghum is also an important feedstock for ethanol production in the Plains states. Pearl millet is showing promise as an ethanol feedstock for the southeastern U.S.
In some parts of Europe, particularly France and Italy, wine is used as a feedstock due to massive oversupply. Japan is hoping to use rice wine (sake) as an ethanol source.